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Bank of England (BoE)

Bank of England (BoE)

What Is the Bank of England (BoE)?

The Bank of England (BoE) is the central bank of the United Kingdom. The BoE manages monetary policy and issues currency. It additionally controls banks, financial firms, and payment systems. Like other central banks, the BoE might act as a lender of last resort in a financial crisis.

Figuring out the Bank of England (BoE)

Nicknamed "the Old Lady of Threadneedle Street" out of appreciation for its location beginning around 1734, the BoE is the U.K. equivalent of the Federal Reserve in the U.S.

Laid out in 1694 as a private bank to raise funds for the government, the BoE likewise worked as a store taking commercial bank. In 1844, the Bank Charter Act gave it a monopoly on giving banknotes in England and Wales.

The U.K. government nationalized the BoE in 1946 following the finish of World War II. The BoE has been responsible for setting the UK's benchmark interest rate starting around 1997, when the government moved its authority over U.K. monetary policy to the bank. The change was formalized the next year by the Bank of England Act.

Monetary Policy Committee

The BoE's Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) seeks after its primary command of price stability by targeting an annual not entirely settled by the government to be generally steady with that objective.

The government's inflation target as of June 2022 was 2%. On the off chance that the inflation rate strays from the target by over 1%, the BoE is required to give a public clarification to the government on a quarterly basis, including the actions returning inflation to the targeted rate is taking.

The nine-member MPC is driven by the legislative head of the Bank of England, equivalent to the Federal Reserve chair. The three delegate governors, for monetary policy, financial stability, and markets and policy, likewise serve on the committee alongside the BoE's chief economist. The other four members are selected by the chancellor of the exchequer, equivalent to the Treasury secretary in the U.S.

The BoE's primary monetary policy apparatus is the bank rate, the interest rate it pays on reserve deposits to domestic banks.

The BoE has likewise given economic stimulus through asset purchases, a policy known as quantitative easing (QE).

The MPC sets monetary policy eight times a year by majority rule, with every member of the committee making one choice. The MPC holds four meeting before every policy announcement.

Financial Services Act of 2012

After the global financial crisis of 2008, the U.K. government transformed financial regulation in the Financial Services Act of 2012. The BoE was reestablished to its job of directing banks, as it did before 1997. The act made the Financial Policy Committee (an independent committee displayed after the MPC), and another subsidiary of the bank called the Prudential Regulation Authority. The bank likewise started to administer financial market infrastructure suppliers like payment systems and central protections contributors.


Following a 2016 mandate barely inclining toward the U.K's. withdrawal from the European Union (EU), widely known as Brexit, the BoE was accused of evaluating the economic fallout. Ahead of the U.K's. formal takeoff from the union toward the finish of 2020, the BoE warned the withdrawal cycle had increased vulnerability and discouraged investment.


  • The Bank of England (BoE) is the United Kingdom's central bank.
  • The UK government has been targeting annual inflation of 2%.
  • The BoE sets policy eight times a year basically through the bank rate, the interest rate it pays banks on reserve balances.
  • The BoE administers monetary policy, issues currency, and controls banks and the financial system.
  • The primary goal of its monetary policy is stable inflation as defined by the government.