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1913 Federal Reserve Act

1913 Federal Reserve Act

What Is the 1913 Federal Reserve Act?

The 1913 Federal Reserve Act is legislation in the United States that made the Federal Reserve System. Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act to lay out economic stability in the U.S. by introducing a central bank to regulate monetary policy.

Understanding the 1913 Federal Reserve Act

The law sets out the purpose, structure, and capability of the Federal Reserve System. Congress can revise the Federal Reserve Act and has done so several times.

Before 1913, financial frenzies were common events since financial backers were uncertain of the safety of their bank deposits. Private agents like J.P. Morgan, who rescued the government in 1895, frequently gave lines of credit to give stability in the financial sector. The 1913 Federal Reserve Act, endorsed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, provided the Fed the ability to print money and policy instruments to guarantee economic stability.

The Federal Reserve System made the dual command to boost employment and keep prices stable.

The Federal Reserve Act is maybe one of the most persuasive laws concerning the U.S. financial system.

The Fed System

The 12 Federal Reserve banks, each in charge of a regional district, are in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Richmond, St. Louis, Atlanta, Chicago, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Dallas, and San Francisco.

The seven individuals from the Board of Governors are nominated by the president and approved by the U.S. Senate. Every lead representative serves a maximum of 14 years, and every lead representative's arrangement is staggered by two years to limit the power of the president. Furthermore, the law directs that arrangements be representative of all broad sectors of the U.S. economy.

Here is the current rundown of Federal Reserve Board individuals as of Jan. 14, 2022.

Current Federal Reserve Board
Jerome H. Powell (Chair)
Seat Currently Empty (Vice Chair)—as of Jan. 14, 2022
Seat Currently Empty (Vice Chair for Supervision)—as of Dec. 31, 2021
Michelle W. Bowman
Lael Brainard
Christopher J. Waller
Seat Currently Empty
Here is the current rundown of Federal Reserve Bank Presidents:
Current Federal Reserve Bank Presidents
Name of PresidentBank Location-District
Kenneth C. MontgomeryBoston-1
John C. WilliamsNew York-2
Patrick T. HarkerPhiladelphia-3
Loretta J. MesterCleveland-4
Thomas I. BarkinRichmond-5
Raphael W. BosticAtlanta-6
Charles L. EvansChicago-7
James BullardSt. Louis-8
Neel KashkariMinneapolis-9
Esther L. GeorgeKansas City-10
Meredith BlackDallas-11
Mary C. DalySan Francisco-12
## Fed Powers

As well as printing money, the Fed received the power to change the discount rate and the Fed funds rate and to buy and sell U.S. Treasuries. The Federal Funds Rate — the interest rate at which depository institutions loan funds kept up with at the Federal Reserve to each other short-term — impacts the accessible credit and the interest rates in the United States and is a measure to guarantee that the biggest banking institutions don't end up short on liquidity.

Through the monetary instruments at its disposal, the Federal Reserve endeavors to smooth the wins and fails of the economic cycle and keep up with adequate bases of money and credit for current production levels.

Central banks across the globe utilize an instrument known as quantitative easing to grow private credit, lower interest rates, and increment speculation and commercial activity. Quantitative easing is mostly used to invigorate economies during downturns when credit is scant, for example, during and following the 2008 financial crisis.


  • The Federal Reserve Act is perhaps of the most persuasive law forming the U.S. financial system.
  • Laying out economic stability in the U.S was carried out. by introducing a central bank to manage monetary policy.
  • The 1913 Federal Reserve Act made the Federal Reserve System, referred to just as "The Fed."