Investor's wiki

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

What Is the International Monetary Fund?

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was conceived in 1944 to secure international monetary cooperation, balance out currency exchange rates, and extend global liquidity (access to hard currencies). The World War II Allies and other cooperating countries set up the multilateral organization to assist with supporting currencies and trade flows after the war.

How Does the IMF Respond?

The IMF's primary purpose is to guarantee the stability of the international monetary system — the system of exchange rates and international payments that empowers countries (and their residents) to execute with one another. The IMF seeks after its mission in the accompanying three fundamental ways:

  • Surveillance: A conventional system of survey screens the financial and economic policies of member countries. The audit system additionally offers both macroeconomic and financial policy guidance.
  • Limit Development: Practical support and training is directed primarily at low-and middle-income countries to assist them with working on their economies.
  • Lending: The Fund makes loans to member countries battling to meet their international obligations. Sometimes offered as a bailout, financial assistance is given in return to executing specific IMF conditions intended to return stability to government finances and to reestablish growth. Known as "underlying adjustments," IMF conditions have included adjusting the budget, ending state endowments, privatizing state ventures, changing trade and currency policies, and eliminating barriers to foreign investment and capital flows.

Has the IMF's Mission Changed?

Since October 2019, the IMF has been driven by Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva, a native of Bulgaria. The Fund's command was refreshed in 2012 to incorporate all macroeconomic and financial sector issues that bear on global stability. The IMF's expanded mission incorporates the accompanying objectives:

  • Fostering global monetary cooperation
  • Getting financial stability
  • Facilitating international trade
  • Advancing high employment and sustainable economic growth
  • Decreasing poverty around the world

Does the IMF Affect My Daily Life?

The response to this question relies upon your address. Assuming you live in the United States, the United Kingdom, or Germany, for instance, the IMF is for the most part invisible in your daily life in light of the fact that your country's economy is generally sound. In contrast, the IMF essentially influences the daily existences of the residents of Ukraine, The Gambia, and Liberia (among others) since it is overseeing loans to these countries and is working to help them in working on their striving economies.

Does the IMF Affect the Markets?

The IMF influences the markets in that its programs are intended to head off economic instability, for example, the sovereign debt emergencies that impacted Greece, Portugal, Ireland, and Iceland starting in 2010. IMF activities to create and support sound economies around the world contribute to stable and solid markets.

What Organizations Are Similar to the IMF?

Otherwise called the Fund, the IMF is one of a group of international economic organizations including the accompanying (among numerous others):

  • The World Bank
  • The World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
  • The World Economic Forum (WEF)

How Are the IMF and the World Bank Connected?

The two institutions were established at the Bretton Woods conference, and they have complementary missions. The World Bank tries to reduce poverty and increase shared flourishing in emerging nations, while the IMF settles the international monetary system and screens the world's currencies. The World Bank gives financing, policy counsel, and technical assistance to governments and gives programs to reinforce the private sector in non-industrial nations. The IMF screens the economy both globally and in member countries, loans to countries facing balance-of-payments troubles, and offers reasonable assistance to members. Countries must initially join the IMF to be eligible to join the World Bank.

Who Created the IMF?

The twin institutions of the IMF and the World Bank were brought into the world on July 1, 1944, as World War II seethed in Europe and the Pacific. Delegates from 44 nations met up in the United States at the separated Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. Their purpose was to settle on a system of economic order and international financial cooperation, with the joint aims of assisting countries with recovering from the destruction of the war and fostering long-term global growth. Officially known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, this gathering is generally alluded to as either Bretton Woods or the Bretton Woods conference.
The international delegates additionally were inspired by more than the annihilation brought about by World War II. They wanted to prevent a repeat of the currency warfare that aided trigger the Great Depression in 1929. Worldwide economic authorities, including Henry Morganthau Jr. also, John Maynard Keynes, tried to make new institutions that would encourage sustainable economic growth, advance higher standards of living, and reduce poverty. As one maneuver toward introducing currency stability, the 44 establishing signatory countries were required to peg their currencies to the U.S. dollar, which at the time was backed by the gold standard.
The United States, assisted by the United Kingdom, developed the initial plans for the IMF. Extra active participants at Bretton Woods included Mexico, Chile, Brazil, Russia, Belgium, the Netherlands, the former Czechoslovakia, Poland, Canada, China, and India.

Who Funds the IMF?

The IMF capabilities as a co-operation that is funded by, represented by, and accountable to its 190 member countries (of the world's total 195 countries). The U.S. is the biggest contributor to and shareholder in the Fund. The Treasury Department drives U.S. engagement in the IMF, with the Secretary of the Treasury filling in as the U.S. Lead representative to the IMF. The U.S. Executive Director of the IMF is one of 24 directors who exercise voting rights over the strategic bearing of the institution.
Situated in Washington, DC, the IMF gets funds (called quota memberships) from its 190 member nations. Members pay according to the size of their economy, with voting rights in light of every member's quota. Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) are the IMF's units of account, and the SDR is valued in light of a basket of five currencies: the U.S. dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, the Chinese RMB or yuan, and the British pound sterling. The IMF deals with an allocation of about U.S. $650 billion.

Does the IMF Have Critics?

Since its loans or bailouts come with different conditions, the IMF is defenseless against reactions from two camps: the individuals who think its loan conditions are too intense and the people who say those equivalent conditions are too weak. IMF pundits have emerged most perceptibly among the Global South and other non-Western countries and societies.
During the late 1990s, pundit Walden Bello zeroed in on the IMF's and World Bank's programs of "underlying adjustment." Even over 20 years later, the issues Bello raised stay significant, particularly during times of international economic distress like the Great Recession (2008-2009) and the COVID-19 global pandemic.
In his book Globalization and Its Discontents, Nobel Prize-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz named the Fund a guilty party in the failed development policies established in a portion of the world's most unfortunate countries. He contended that economic changes like fiscal austerity, high interest rates, trade liberalization, privatization, and open capital markets have frequently been counterproductive for borrower economies and obliterating for neighborhood populaces.
These economic changes additionally have been called excessively aggressive and nosy. At last, some have affirmed that IMF intercessions can wind up expanding poverty, enlarging economic inequality, and even making dependency.

Is the IMF Working on Today's Global Problems?

As well as executing an expanded order in 2012, the IMF has programs that address the financial and economic parts of the accompanying international difficulties:

  • Climate change
  • Sovereign debt issues
  • Income inequality
  • Orientation economic balance
  • Domestic savagery
  • Economic effects of computerization
  • COVID-19 and public wellbeing overall

The IMF has additionally become associated with developments encompassing crypto assets and the developing crypto ecosystem. Numerous crypto organizations lack strong operational, governance, and risk rehearses; as crypto assets become more mainstream, the possible ramifications for the more extensive economy are probably going to increase.


  • The IMF collects huge measures of data on national economies, international trade, and the global economy in aggregate and gives economic gauges.
  • The IMF's mission is to advance global economic growth and financial stability, encourage international trade, and reduce poverty around the world.
  • One of the IMF's most important capabilities is to make loans to countries that are encountering economic distress to prevent or moderate financial emergencies.
  • The IMF was initially made in 1945 as part of the Bretton Woods agreement, which endeavored to encourage international financial cooperation by introducing a system of convertible currencies at fixed exchange rates.


Where Does the IMF Get Its Money?

The IMF helps its money through quotas and memberships from its member countries. These contributions depend on the size of the country's economy, making the U.S., with the world's biggest economy, the biggest contributor.

What Is the Difference Between the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank?

The International Monetary Fund is principally centered around the stability of the global monetary system and monitoring the currencies of the world. The aim of the World Bank is to reduce poverty across the world and fortify the low-to middle-class populaces.

The amount Are the IMF Grants?

IMF grants are given to good cause in Washington D.C. furthermore, member countries. The grants are intended to foster economic independence through education and economic development." The average grant size is $15,000.