Investor's wiki

Par Value

Par Value

What Is Par Value?

Par value is the nominal value, or face value, of a security, to be specific a stock or a bond.
At the point when a company approves shares, it likewise sets the par value for shares to be issued, commonly an amount greater than zero. A company's stock must trade over the base legal requirement set by its par value, and that means that the stock can't be bought, sold, or traded at not exactly its par value. Setting par value, however, relies upon the state where a company is chartered. All things considered, a few states don't set rules on par value.

Par Value Meaning by Security

Par value has a separate importance for stocks and bonds, and this section frames the difference.

Par Value for Stocks

For shares of a publicly traded company, the par value addresses the legal value that must be kept up with. Par value is stated on a stock's certificate however doesn't be guaranteed to mirror the market value.
Companies normally set their par value exceptionally low to limit the risk of market price falling below the base legal requirement. Many companies set the nominal value at $0.01 a share, while certain companies go to the furthest point. The par value for Apple's common stock, for instance, is 1/1000 of a penny.

Par Value for Bonds

With regards to bonds, par value is face value, or the amount a bond can be recovered for by its holder once it arrives at maturity. For instance, the U.S. Treasury issues a 10-year bond with a par value of $1,000 that pays interest consistently. The bond can be recovered at its par value upon maturity, and the Treasury must pay that amount.
At the point when a bond's price is not exactly its face value in the open market, it's trading below par value, or at a discount. In more bond investorspeak, when the price is below face value, it's better than expected, or at a premium; at a similar price, it's at par.

Bond PricePhraseCoupon Rate
Greater than face value “above par” or “at a premium” Coupon Rate > Yield to Maturity
Equal to face value“at par”Coupon Rate = Yield to Maturity
Less than face value “below par” or “at a discount” Coupon Rate < Yield to Maturity
Source: Corporate Finance, Berk and DeMarzo

Which States Require Par Value?

A few states expect companies to set par value when they approve shares, yet the trend is toward eliminating this provision. Delaware, a famous state of decision for companies to incorporate in light of the simplicity of filing, is among the states done requiring par value.

Imagine a scenario in which a Stock Goes Below Par Value.

If a stock starts to trade below its par value, it would be in violation of a company's charter and would fail to meet the legal least requirement. It would likewise be an indication that the company is indebted. In the event that this happened, shareholders could sue the company to compensate for any shortfall. But, since par value is normally set so low, lawsuits rarely occur.
Since the Securities and Exchange Commission doesn't set rules on laying out par value, it turns into an issue with the state where the company was chartered. Shareholders would file a claim with a court in that state.


  • Par value, otherwise called nominal value, is the face value of a bond or the stock value stated in the corporate charter.
  • Par value is important for a bond or fixed-income instrument since it decides its maturity value as well as the dollar value of coupon payments.
  • Par value for a bond is generally $1,000 (or less significantly $100), as these are the most common divisions wherein they are issued.


Are Bonds Issued at Par Value?

Bonds are not really issued at their par value. They could likewise be issued at a premium or at a discount contingent upon the level of interest rates in the economy. A bond that is trading better than expected is supposed to exchange at a premium, while a bond trading below par is trading at a discount. During periods when interest rates are low or have been trending lower, a bigger extent of bonds will trade better than expected or at a premium. At the point when interest rates are high, a bigger extent of bonds will trade at a discount.

What Is a Bond's Par Value?

Par value is one of the main qualities of a bond. A bond is basically a written commitment that the amount lent to the issuer will be reimbursed and the par value is the amount of money that issuer vows to repay bondholders at the maturity date of the bond. Beside setting the maturity value, the par value additionally decides the dollar value of coupon payments. Par value for a bond is commonly $1,000 or $100 on the grounds that these are the typical categories wherein they are issued.

What Is the Relationship Between Coupon Rate and Par Value?

The coupon rate, which is the periodic interest payments made to bondholders as compensation for crediting the issuer the money, compared to the interest rates in the economy decides if a bond will trade at, below, or over its par value. In the event that coupon rate equals the interest rate, the bond will trade at its par value. Be that as it may, on the off chance that interest rates rise, the price of a lower-coupon bond must decline to offer similar yield to investors, making it trade below its par value. On the other hand, on the off chance that interest rates fall, the price of a higher-coupon bond will rise and trade over its par value since its coupon rate is more appealing.

What Is a Stock's Par Value?

Par value for a share alludes to the stock value stated in the corporate charter. Shares typically have no par value or extremely low par value, for example, one penny for each share. On account of equity, the par value has next to no connection to the shares' market price. A few states expect that companies set a par value below what shares can't be sold. To follow state regulations, most companies set a par value for their stocks to a negligible amount. For instance, the par value for shares of Apple (AAPL) is $0.00001