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Year-Over-Year (YOY)

Year-Over-Year (YOY)

What Is Year-Over-Year (YOY)?

Year-over-year (YOY) — here and there alluded to as year-on-year — is a frequently involved financial comparison for taking a gander at least two quantifiable events on an annualized basis. Noticing YOY performance allows for checking in the event that a company's financial performance is improving, static, or declining. For instance, you might peruse in financial reports that a specific business reported its revenues increased for the second from last quarter, on a YOY basis, throughout the previous three years.

Figuring out YOY

YOY comparisons are a famous and effective method for assessing the financial performance of a company and the performance of investments. Any quantifiable event that rehashes annually can measure up on a YOY basis. Common YOY comparisons incorporate annual, quarterly, and month to month performance.

Benefits of YOY

YOY estimations work with the cross comparison of sets of data. For a company's first-quarter revenue utilizing YOY data, a financial analyst or an investor can compare years of first-quarter revenue data and quickly learn whether a company's revenue is expanding or decreasing.

For instance, in the main quarter of 2021, the Coca-Cola corporation reported a 5% increase in net revenues over the primary quarter of the previous year. By contrasting that very months in various years, drawing accurate comparisons regardless of the seasonal idea of consumer behavior is conceivable. This YOY comparison is additionally important for investment portfolios. Investors like to look at YOY performance to perceive how performance changes across time.

Thinking Behind YOY

YOY comparisons are famous while dissecting a company's performance since they help moderate seasonality, a factor that can influence most businesses. Sales, profits, and other financial metrics change during various periods of the year on the grounds that most lines of business have a pinnacle season and a low demand season.

For instance, retailers have a pinnacle demand season during the holiday shopping season, which falls in the fourth quarter of the year. To appropriately quantify a company's performance, it's a good idea to compare revenue and profits YOY.

Contrasting the fourth-quarter performance in one year to the fourth-quarter performance in different years is important. On the off chance that an investor takes a gander at a retailer's outcomes in the fourth quarter versus the prior second from last quarter, it could give the idea that a company is going through remarkable growth when seasonality is impacting the difference in the outcomes. Essentially, in a comparison of the fourth quarter with the following first quarter, there could seem an emotional decline, when this could likewise be a consequence of seasonality.

YOY likewise contrasts from the term sequential, which measures one quarter or month to the previous one and allows investors to see linear growth. For example, the number of cell telephones a tech company sold in the fourth quarter compared with the second from last quarter or the number of seats an airline filled in January compared with December.

Certifiable Example

In a 2019 NASDAQ report, Kellogg Company delivered mixed results for the fourth quarter of 2018, uncovering that its YOY earnings kept on declining, even when sales increased following corporate acquisitions. Kellogg anticipated that adjusted earnings would drop by a further 5% to 7% in 2019 as it kept on investing in alternate channels and pack designs.

The company likewise revealed plans to redesign its North America and Asia-Pacific sections, eliminating several divisions from the former and rearranging the last option into Kellogg Asia, Middle East, and Africa. In spite of decreasing YOY earnings, the company's strong presence and responsiveness to consumer consumption trends implied that Kellogg's overall outlook stayed good.


  • Investors seeking to check a company's financial performance use YOY reporting.
  • Year-over-year (YOY) is a method of assessing at least two estimated events to compare the outcomes at one period with those of a comparable period on an annualized basis.
  • YOY comparisons are a well known and effective method for assessing the financial performance of a company.


How Is YOY Calculated?

YOY computations are direct and typically communicated in percentage terms. This would include requiring the current year's value and isolating it by the prior year's value and deducting one: (this year) \u00f7 (last year) - 1.

What Is YOY Used For?

YOY is utilized to make comparisons between one time span and another that is one year sooner. This allows for an annualized comparison, say between second from last quarter earnings this year versus second from last quarter earnings the year before. It is commonly used to compare a company's growth in profits or revenue, and it can likewise be utilized to depict yearly changes in an economy's money supply, gross domestic product (GDP), and other economic estimations.

Consider the possibility that I Am Interested in Comparisons for Less Than a Year.

You can register month-over-month or quarter-over-quarter (Q/Q) similarly as YOY. To be sure, you can pick any time span you want.

What's the Difference Between YOY and YTD?

YOY takes a gander at a year change. Year to date (YTD) takes a gander at a change relative to the beginning of the year (normally Jan. 1).