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Maastricht Treaty

Maastricht Treaty

What Is the Maastricht Treaty?

The term Maastricht Treaty alludes to the international agreement that was responsible for the creation of the European Union (EU). The agreement was endorsed in 1992 in the Dutch city of Maastricht and became effective in 1993. It prompted greater cooperation between the 12 member nations that marked the treaty by advancing unified citizenship, alongside economic, social, and progress. The treaty likewise set out the foundation for a single currency, the euro. It was amended several times since it was agreed upon. As of October 2021, 27 member states were part of the European Union.

Figuring out the Maastricht Treaty

The Maastricht Treaty was endorsed in the Dutch city of Maastricht on Feb. 7, 1992, by delegates of 12 member nations that made up the European Community (EC). Conversations for the agreement started in December 1991. The concept of the EU was a subject of discussion and required the endorsement of electors in every country, which included:

  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Luxembourg
  • Netherlands
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • United Kingdom and Northern Ireland

Officially as the Treaty on European Union, the treaty became real on Nov. 1, 1993.

The goal of the treaty was to increase cooperation by laying out common European citizenship to permit occupants to move, live, and work freely between member states. It likewise made a shared economic, foreign policy, and security policy system. Member nations additionally agreed to coordinate on security and legal affairs.

The treaty laid out a course of events for the creation and implementation of the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The EMU was to incorporate a common economic and monetary union, a central banking system, and a common currency. The European Central Bank (ECB) was in 1998 once the year's end conversion rates between member states' currencies was fixed, a preface to the creation of the euro, which started circulation in 2002.

It additionally presented the criteria that countries must meet if they have any desire to join the euro. This was a measure to guarantee that countries joining the euro were stable in inflation, levels of public debt, interest rates, and exchange rates.

Nineteen of the countries utilize the euro as their official currency.

Special Considerations

The treaty was amended a number of times since it was first sanctioned:

  • In 1997, the Treaty of Amsterdam added to a portion of the social protection points in the original treaty, including those alluding to shelter searchers and migration, sex discrimination, and living and working conditions.
  • The Treaty of Nice, which came full circle in February 2003, improved the Treaty of Maastricht in anticipation of new member states. This agreement gave the Commission's leader more independence from member state legislatures. It likewise furnished member states with more power to coordinate policies in certain region, in spite of the requirement for national rejections.
  • The Treaty of Lison amended existing settlements instead of supplanting them. It laid out an EU administration, fortified the union's foreign policy representation, and moved greater power to the union's legal executive, parliament, and commission. It became real in December 2009 following two years of votes in member countries.

The United Kingdom casted a ballot to leave the European Union following a mandate alluded to as Brexit. Its withdrawal officially occurred on Jan. 31, 2020.

Effects of the Maastricht Treaty

The treaty conceded EU citizenship to each citizen of a member state, permitting individuals to run for nearby office and for European Parliament elections in the EU country where they resided, paying little heed to nationality.

By making a common economic and monetary union, the agreement laid out the current central banking system. The ECB's fundamental objective is to keep up with price stability, which eventually means to defend the value of the euro. This began with the free movement of capital between the member states, which prompted increased cooperation between national central banks and the increased arrangement of economic policy among member states. The last step was the presentation of the euro.

A major goal was greater policy cooperation and coordination all the more generally. The climate, policing, and social policy were only a portion of a number of regions in which the countries planned to increase cooperation and coordination.


  • The Maastricht Treaty laid out the European Union's single currency system for the euro.
  • The Maastricht Treaty set out the foundation for the European Union.
  • The treaty was endorsed by 12 countries in the Dutch city of Maastricht in 1992 and came full circle in 1993.
  • The treaty was amended a number of times somewhere in the range of 1997 and 2009.
  • The agreement laid out greater cooperation between member states through economic, social, and legal channels.