Investor's wiki

Baltic Dry Index (BDI)

Baltic Dry Index (BDI)

What Is the Baltic Dry Index (BDI)?

The Baltic Dry Index (BDI) is a shipping and trade index made by the London-based Baltic Exchange. It measures changes in the cost of shipping different raw materials, like coal and steel.

Individuals from the exchange straightforwardly contact shipping brokers to survey price levels for given shipping ways, a product to move, and time to delivery or speed. The Baltic Dry Index is a composite of four sub-records that measure various sizes of dry bulk transporters or merchant ships: Capesize, Panamax, Supramax, and Handysize.

How the Baltic Dry Index Works

The Baltic Exchange ascertains the index by surveying different shipping rates across in excess of 20 courses for every one of the BDI component vessels. Dissecting numerous geographic shipping ways for each index gives depth to the index's composite measurement. Individuals contact dry bulk shippers worldwide to gather their prices and they then, at that point, work out an average. The Baltic Exchange issues the BDI daily.

A change in the Baltic Dry Index can give investors understanding into global supply and demand trends. Many believe a rising or contracting index to be a leading indicator of future economic growth. It depends on raw materials on the grounds that the demand for them predicts what's in store. These materials are bought to develop and support structures and infrastructure, not on occasion when purchasers have either an excess of materials or are done developing structures or manufacturing products.

The Baltic Exchange likewise operates as a maker of markets in freight derivatives, including types of financial forward contracts known as forward freight agreements.

The Sizes of BDI Vessels

The BDI measures shipments on different sizes of cargo ships. Capesize boats are the largest ships in the BDI with 100,000 deadweight tonnage (DWT) or greater. The average size of a Capesize ship is 156,000 DWT.

This category can likewise incorporate a few gigantic vessels with limits of 400,000 DWT. Capesize ships fundamentally transport coal and iron mineral on long-pull courses and are incidentally used to ship grains. They're too large to cross over the Panama Canal.

Panamax ships have a 60,000 to 80,000 DWT capacity, and they're utilized generally to move coal, grains, and minor bulk products like sugar and concrete. Panamax cargo ships require specific equipment for loading and unloading. They can barely squeeze through the Panama Canal.

The littlest vessels remembered for the BDI are Supramaxes, additionally alluded to as Handymaxes (or Handysize). These ships have a carrying capacity of 45,000 to 59,999 DWT. They're sometimes Although they're close in size to Panamaxes, Supramaxes ordinarily have specific equipment for loading and unloading, and they're utilized in ports where Panamaxes can't.

Type of Dry Bulk Commodities

Dry bulk commodities are typically isolated into two categories: major bulks and minor bulks. A few instances of major dry bulk commodities incorporate iron mineral, coal, and grain. These major bulks account for almost two-thirds of global dry bulk trade. Minor bulks incorporate steel products, sugars, concrete, and cover the excess one-third of global dry bulk trade.

Coal, along with iron metal, is one of the most traded dry bulk commodities by volume in the world. Countries most associated with the importation of coal for their primary energy and power needs are India, China, and Japan. Grain is one more major cargo in terms of seaborne dry bulk trade and accounts for a lump of the total dry bulk trade worldwide.

True Example

The index can fall when the goods shipped are raw, pre-production material, which is normally an area with negligible levels of speculation. The index can experience high levels of volatility in the event that global demand increases or abruptly drops off on the grounds that the supply of large transporters will in general be little with long lead times and high production costs.

Stock prices increase when the global market is sound and developing, and they will quite often diminish when it's stalled or dropping. The index is sensibly reliable on the grounds that it relies upon highly contrasting factors of supply and demand absent a lot of in the method of impacts like unemployment and inflation.

The BDI anticipated the 2008 recession in some measure when prices experienced a sharp drop. In one striking illustration of the knowledge that can emerge out of the index, analysts could see that between September 2019 and January 2020, the Baltic Dry Index (BDI) fell by over 70%, a strong indication of economic contraction. This happened straight ahead of the flare-up of the COVID-19 pandemic. Then, at that point, into 2021, the BDI rose decisively as the pandemic prompted growls and defers in global shipping.


  • The Baltic Dry Index (BDI) is an index of average prices paid for the vehicle of dry bulk materials across in excess of 20 courses.
  • The index can experience high levels of volatility in light of the fact that the supply of large transporters will in general be little with long lead times and high production costs.
  • The BDI is much of the time saw as a leading indicator of economic activity since changes in the index reflect supply and demand for important materials utilized in manufacturing.