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What Is an Amalgamation?

An amalgamation is a combination of at least two companies into another entity. Amalgamation is distinct from a merger in light of the fact that neither one of the companies included gets by as a legal entity. All things considered, a totally new entity is framed to house the combined assets and liabilities of the two companies.

The term amalgamation has generally fallen out of well known use in the United States, being replaced with the terms merger or consolidation even when another entity is shaped. However, it is still ordinarily utilized in countries like India.

Grasping Amalgamations

Amalgamation regularly occurs between at least two companies took part in the very line of business or those that share some likeness in operations. Companies might consolidate to enhance their activities or to grow their scope of services.

Since at least two companies are combining, an amalgamation brings about the formation of a bigger entity. The transferor company โ€” the more vulnerable company โ€” is absorbed into the more grounded transferee company, accordingly framing a totally unique company. This leads to a more grounded and bigger customer base, and furthermore means the recently shaped entity has more assets.

Amalgamations generally happen among bigger and more modest elements, where the bigger one takes over more modest firms.

The Pros and Cons of Amalgamations

Amalgamation is a method for gaining cash resources, wipe out competition, save money on taxes, or influence the economies of huge scale operations. Amalgamation may likewise increase shareholder value, reduce risk by diversification, work on managerial viability, and assist with accomplishing company growth and financial gain.

Then again, if too much competition is cut out, amalgamation might lead to a monopoly, which can be inconvenient for consumers and the marketplace. It might likewise lead to the reduction of the new company's labor force as certain jobs are copied and subsequently make a few employees obsolete. It likewise increases debt: by combining the two companies, the new entity expects the liabilities of both.


  • Can improve competitiveness

  • Can reduce taxes

  • Increases economies of scale

  • Potential to increase shareholder value

  • Diversifies the firm


  • Can concentrate too much power into a monopolistic firm

  • Can lead to job losses

  • Increases the firm's debt load

## Amalgamation Procedure

The terms of amalgamation are concluded by the board of directors of each company. The plan is prepared and submitted for endorsement. For example, the High Court and Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) must support the shareholders of the new company when a plan is submitted.

The new company authoritatively turns into an entity and issues shares to shareholders of the transferor company. The transferor company is liquidated, and all assets and liabilities are taken over by the transferee company.

In accounting, amalgamations may likewise be alluded to as consolidations.

Illustration of Amalgamation

In late 2021, it was announced that media companies Time Warner and Discovery, Inc. would consolidate in a deal worth an estimated $43 billion. Owned by AT&T, Time Warner (which the telecom company acquired in 2018) would be veered off and afterward amalgamated with Discovery. The new entity, known as Warner Bros. Discovery, Inc., is expected to close eventually in late 2022 and will be going by Discovery CEO David Zaslav.

Types of Amalgamation

One type of amalgamation โ€” like a merger โ€” pools the two companies' assets and liabilities, and the shareholders' interests together. All assets of the transferor company become that of the transferee company.

The business of the transferor company is carried on after the amalgamation. No changes are made to book values. Shareholders of the transferor company holding at least 90% face value of equity shares become shareholders of the transferee company.

The second type of amalgamation is like a purchase. One company is acquired by another, and shareholders of the transferor company don't have a proportionate share in that frame of mind of the combined company. In the event that the purchase consideration surpasses the net asset value (NAV), the excess amount is recorded as goodwill. If not, it is recorded as capital reserves.


  • The transferor company is absorbed into the more grounded, transferee company, leading to an entity with a more grounded customer base and more assets.
  • Amalgamation can assist with expanding cash resources, wipe out competition, and save companies on taxes.
  • This contrasts from a traditional merger in that neither one nor the other companies included gets by as an entity.
  • However, it can lead to a monopoly if too much competition is cut out, scale down the labor force, and increase the new entity's debt load.
  • Amalgamation is the combination of at least two companies into a brand new entity by consolidating the assets and liabilities of the two substances into one.


What Are the Methods of Accounting for Amalgamation?

There are two primary ways of accounting for an amalgamation. In the pooling of interests method, the transferee company assumes the balance sheet of the transferor โ€” valued at the date of amalgamation. In the purchase method, assets are treated as acquired by the transferee where disparities are accounted for as goodwill or a capital surplus.

What Is an Amalgamation Reserve?

The amalgamation reserve is the amount of cash left over by the new entity after the amalgamation is completed. On the off chance that this amount is negative, it will be booked as goodwill.

What Are the Objectives of an Amalgamation?

An amalgamation is like a merger in that it consolidates two firms, yet here a brand new entity is framed thus. The objective is subsequently to lay out a unique entity that lays on the business combination to accomplish greater seriousness and economies of scale.