Investor's wiki

Book Value

Book Value

What Is Book Value?

Book value is an accounting measure of the net value of a company. It's a measurement used to calculate the valuation of a company based on its assets and liabilities.
In the event that owners or executives tried to make a quick sale of their company and expected to figure out valuation, one method would be by means of book value. Going through their balance sheet, they would subtract liabilities from assets, providing a net asset amount.
One more term for book value is shareholders' equity, which is a detail that can be found on the balance sheets of publicly traded companies' quarterly and yearly filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Shareholders' equity is normally found under the assets, liabilities, and equity section of the balance sheet.
Note: When investors and analysts allude to a company's book value, they are typically alluding to its book value of equity. The term book value is likewise utilized in terms of assets, and book value of assets is defined as acquisition costs of assets like property, plant, and equipment minus accumulated depreciation. This article, be that as it may, centers specifically around book value of equity.
Net income might play a major factor in a company's book value, and owners or executives typically believe that the valuation of their company should increase: The higher the profits, the higher the book value; on the other hand, lower profits can drive book value down. It's more straightforward to push up or bring down profits on a quarterly basis because different assets and liabilities will generally vary not exactly net income.

Book Value Formula

Book Value = Assets - Liabilities

How Do You Calculate Book Value?

Book value can be calculated in a simplified way by subtracting a company's liabilities from its assets. As a rule, notwithstanding, there are different things that are remembered for that calculation, and it isn't quite as direct as subtracting detail "Total Liabilities" from detail "Total Assets."
In The Coca-Cola Company's financials, for example, shareholders' equity would be listed as "Total Equity", which subtracts a wide range of liabilities — including long-term debt — from "Total Assets." Amazon records its shareholders' equity simply as "Total Stockholders' Equity."

Why Is Book Value Important?

For startups, book value is a basic measurement to measure their company's valuation. They don't have shares that are openly traded, and consequently don't have a public market price. There are other valuation methods for startup companies, of course, but book value provides tangible assets like equipment, property, and inventory.
Publicly traded companies, then again, have a published market prices, providing investors with the ability to compare the company's market value to its book value. Book value will in general be lower than market value because shareholders for the most part put a premium on price. In any case, on the off chance that book value is higher than market value, the company would be considered undervalued, but, still, it's unprecedented to see book value be equivalent to or lower than market value.
Unusual occasions, for example, market slumps, however, can make market value drop precipitously. Toward the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in mid 2020, panic selling drove stock prices down for some companies, and in late March and early April, the market value for some dipped below their book value.
It's challenging to predict a company's assets or liabilities or gather that data in real time, so investors utilize the latest data and combine it with the latest stock price in computing price-to-book ratio.
Below is a table of companies' book values as of the finish of the second from last quarter of 2021 compared to their market capitalization toward the finish of November, in billions of dollars.

CompanyBook ValueMarket Valuation
Berkshire Hathaway481632
Structure 10-Q Filings

Book Value versus Market Value versus Intrinsic Value, According to Warren Buffett

Throughout the course of recent many years, renowned investor Warren Buffett has placed less emphasis on book value, saying in the annual reports of Berkshire Hathaway that it's a weak indicator for evaluating the value of a company. All things considered, he prefers seeing market value, and making it a stride further, intrinsic value, which in simple terms, he says is the discounted value of the cash that can be removed from a business during its excess life.
He involved a college degree as an example in which book value was generally the cost of the education, while the intrinsic value was generally the difference between the alumni's earnings over their lifetime and what their lifetime earnings would have been without a degree. Buffett's emphasis is on a company's future (intrinsic) value for its earnings potential as opposed to its historical (book) value. As a matter of fact, he proceeds to say that book value is meaningless as an indicator of intrinsic value.


  • An asset's book value is equivalent to its carrying value on the balance sheet.
  • Book value per share (BVPS) and the price-to-book (P/B) ratio are used in fundamental analysis.
  • The book value of a company is the net difference between that company's total assets and total liabilities, where book value mirrors the total value of a company's assets that shareholders of that company would receive assuming the company were to be liquidated.
  • Book value is in many cases lower than a company's or alternately asset's market value.


How Is Book Value Used in Calculating Return on Equity?

Return on equity is calculated by partitioning net income by book value.

What Is Price-to-Book Ratio?

That ratio measures how a company's market valuation compares to its book value. A high ratio might demonstrate overvaluation, while a low ratio proposes a company is at fair value or undervalued.

Are Book Value and Market Value the Same?

Market value is calculated by multiplying a company's number of shares outstanding by its share price, while book value is the difference between its assets and liabilities.

Will Book Value Be Negative?

Book value can be negative on the off chance that a company's liabilities surpass its assets. Generally speaking, a negative book value could mean that a company is bankrupt.

What Is Book Value Per Share?

Book value per share is calculated by taking shareholders' equity and separating it by the number of shares outstanding, providing book value on a per-share basis.