Investor's wiki

At Par

At Par

What Is at Par?

The term "at par" means at face value. A bond, preferred stock, or other debt instrument might trade at par, below par, or above par.

Par value is static, not normal for market value, which changes with credit ratings, time to maturity, and interest rate variances. The par value is assigned at the time the security is issued. At the point when securities were issued in paper form, the par value was imprinted on the face of the security, thus the term "face value."

Understanding at Par

Due to the steady changes of interest rates, bonds and other financial instruments never trade precisely at par. A bond won't trade at par in the event that current interest rates are above or below the bond's coupon rate, which is the interest rate that it yields.

A bond that was trading at par would be quoted at 100, meaning that it traded at 100% of its par value. A quote of 99 would mean that it is trading at the vast majority of its face value.

Par value for common stock exists in a chronologically erroneous form. In its charter, the company vows not to sell its stock at lower than par value. The shares are then issued with a par value of one penny. This affects the stock's genuine value in the markets.

A New Bond

If, when a company issues another bond, it receives the face value of the security, the bond is said to have been issued at par. In the event that the issuer receives not exactly the face value for the security, it is issued at a discount. In the event that the issuer receives more than the face value for the security, it is issued at a premium.

The yield for bonds and the dividend rate for preferred stocks substantially affect whether new issues of these securities are issued at par, at a discount, or at a premium.

A bond that trades at par has a yield equivalent to its coupon. Investors expect a return equivalent to the coupon for the risk of lending to the bond issuer.

Illustration of at Par

In the event that a company issues a bond with a 5% coupon, yet winning yields for comparable bonds are 10%, investors will pay not as much as par for the bond to make up for the difference in rates. The bond's value at its maturity plus its yield up to that time must be no less than 10% to draw in a buyer.

Assuming winning yields are lower, say 3%, an investor will pay more than par for that 5% bond. The investor will receive the coupon yet need to pay something else for it due to the lower winning yields.


  • The owner of a bond will receive its par value at its maturity date.
  • A bond's price will then vary in light of winning interest rates, time to maturity, and credit ratings, making the bond trade either at better than expected or below par.
  • "At par" will continuously allude to the original price that a bond was issued at.
  • Par value is the price at which a bond was issued, otherwise called its face value.


What Is a Bond's Par Value?

A bond's par value is its face value, the price that it was issued at. Most bonds are issued with a par value of $1,000 or $100. Over the long haul, the bond's price will change, due to changes in interest rates, credit ratings, and time to maturity. At the point when this occurs, a bond's price will either be over its par value (better than expected) or below its par value (below par).

What Is a Bond's Coupon Rate?

The coupon rate of a bond is the stated amount of interest that the bond will pay an investor at the hour of its issue. A bond's coupon rate is not the same as a bond's yield. A bond's yield is its effective rate of return when the bond's price changes. A bond's yield is calculated as coupon rate/current bond price.

Are Bonds Always Issued at Par Value?

No, bonds are not generally issued at par value. They can be issued at a premium (price is higher than the par value) or at a discount (price is below the par value). The justification behind a bond being issued at a price that is not quite the same as its par value has to do with current market interest rates. For instance, in the event that a bond's yield is higher than market rates, a bond will trade at a premium. On the other hand, in the event that a bond's yield is below market rates, it will trade at a discount to make it more alluring.