Investor's wiki

Profit Margin

Profit Margin

What Is Profit Margin?

Profit margin shows how much earnings are created from a company's revenue, and it is communicated as a percentage. It tends to be utilized to examine any company however is especially valuable in contrasting companies inside a similar industry. Generally, the higher the ratio, the more profitable the company is.

What Are the 3 Types of Profit Margin?

Gross profit margin, operating profit margin, and net profit margin are the three principal types of profit margin. Investors and analysts allude to the margins with various names, and that can frequently lead to confusion.
Each type of profit margin has an alternate equation in view of computing expenses, however they all share revenue as the common denominator. The components for their formulas can be found in the income statement section of a company's financial statement. (In the event that it's a publicly traded company, the filing will be on a quarterly and annual basis with the Securities and Exchange Commission.)
From gross profit margin to operating profit margin and net profit margin, these deductions work their direction down along the income statement start to finish. Each type of profit margin examines what expenses are meaning for profitability, and whether a company's executives are overseeing sales successfully and productively. For gross profit margin, expenses are associated with the production and sale of goods, and the details normally show up at the highest point of the income statement. Operating profit margin includes ascertaining operating expenses against revenue, yet that avoids interest expenses and tax charges. Net income incorporates all costs, and the primary concern figure is separated by revenue.
According to a financial backer's point of view, gross profit margin helps in grasping how a company's costs for raw materials and labor (cost of goods sold) cut into its profitability during a specific period. A high ratio could mean either that costs are taken care of or that sales may be over the company's expectations. On the other hand, a low ratio could mean expenses are close to matching sales and should be tended to. Computing from that equivalent income statement, a higher-than-average ratio for operating profit margin could demonstrate that administrative and selling expenses are being kept low, while a lower ratio could mean rising costs. For net profit margin, a higher-than-normal ratio proposes a truly profitable period for the company, while a lower ratio recommends profits have endured a shot relative to revenue. In any case, the purposes behind a low ratio may be equivocal on the grounds that net income is the main concern figure of the income statement, so looking vertical along the statement makes a difference. Simultaneously, it assists with bringing calculations on gross and operating profit margins to the table quick signs.

How Are Profit Margins Calculated?

Every one of the three types of profit margin has its own formula, however revenue fills in as the denominator in each case.

Gross Profit Margin Formula

Gross profit margin is calculated by deducting expenses alluded to as costs of goods sold (like raw materials and labor) from revenue. Revenue minus COGS is known as gross profit, and that difference is then partitioned by revenue. The ratio is essentially alluded to as gross margin.

Operating Profit Margin Formula

This ratio computes earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) payments are made, and it centers around expenses tied to a company's operations. Operating profit margin includes deducting costs connecting with administrative work and research and development from gross profit, and that difference is then separated by revenue. Operating profit margin likewise takes on many names: operating income margin, operating margin, EBIT margin, and return on sales.

Net Profit Margin Formula

Net profit margin is frequently alluded to just as profit margin, yet there is a qualification from the general term since net income is profit after all expenses and payments, including interest and tax, have been made. Net profit margin is a simple calculation: net income separated by revenue.

The most effective method to Interpret Profit Margin (Example: Tesla)

The table below shows bits of Tesla's quarterly income statements from the main quarter of 2020 to the second from last quarter of 2021. Tesla reported its most memorable annual profit in 2020, and the data show how its profit margins (gross margin, operating margin, and net profit margin) have performed over the seven quarters in this survey. As demand for its electric vehicles got, production and sales increased, while Tesla managed to keep its costs — to be specific raw materials and interest expenses — taken care of.

TeslaQ3 2021Q2 2021Q1 2021Q4 2020Q3 2020Q2 2020Q1 2020
Total Revenue13,75711,95810,38910,7448,7716,0365,985
Total Cost of Revenue10,0979,0748,1748,6786,7084,7694,751
Gross Profit 3,6602,8842,2152,0662,0631,2671,234
Gross Profit Margin26.6%24.1%21.3%19.2%23.5%21.0%20.6%
Income Before Income Taxes1,8821,29353337955515070
Interest Expense1267599246163170169
Operating Income (EBIT)2,008 1,368632625718320239
Operating Profit Margin14.6%11.4%6.1%5.8%8.2%5.3%4.0%
Net Income1,618 1,14243827033110416
Net Profit Margin11.8%9.6%4.2%2.5%3.8%1.7%0.3%
Structures 10-Q and 10-K

What Are the Limitations of Profit Margin?

Profit margin just shows the profitability ratios of a company. It doesn't show how assets and investments are used to produce profit. The income statement doesn't show how cash from earnings is being used or whether executive management utilizes the money to buy back stock or pay dividends to shareholders.


  • Profit margin measures the degree to which a company or a business activity brings in money, basically by separating income by revenues.
  • Profit margins are utilized by creditors, investors, and businesses themselves as indicators of a company's financial wellbeing, management's expertise, and growth potential.
  • As run of the mill profit margins change by industry sector, care ought to be taken while contrasting the figures for various businesses.
  • Communicated as a percentage, profit margin demonstrates the number of pennies of profit that has been produced for every dollar of sale.
  • While there are several types of profit margin, the most huge and commonly utilized is net profit margin, a company's primary concern after any remaining expenses, including taxes and one-off peculiarities, have been eliminated from revenue.


Could Profit Margin Be Over 100 Percent?

Net profit margin could surpass 100 percent if an extraordinary, or one-time, thing surpassed its income after tax and interest expenses.

What Is a Good Profit Margin?

A 2015 report put the average gross profit margin for companies with market capitalization surpassing $1 billion at 42 percent, operating margin 13 to 14 percent, and net profit margin 7 percent. Having a margin at or better than expected would be viewed as great.

Will Profit Margin Be Negative?

Profit margin could be negative in the event that costs of goods sold surpass total revenue.

Are There Other Ratios Similar to Profit Margin?

Other profitability ratios remember return for equity, return on assets, and return on total capital, however those to a great extent measure on how assets and investments produce sales.