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Asymmetric Volatility Phenomenon (AVP)

Asymmetric Volatility Phenomenon (AVP)

What Is the Asymmetric Volatility Phenomenon (AVP)?

The asymmetric volatility phenomenon (AVP) is the noticed propensity of equity market volatility to be higher in declining markets than in rising markets. This means that volatility will increase additional given a 10% drop from current price levels than given a 10% gain.

Market psychology assumes a part in this phenomenon since individuals can go overboard with fear or panic to selloffs. There is likewise a more natural propensity to safeguard positions against downside losses as opposed to selling upside gains in the more limited term.

Figuring out the Asymmetric Volatility Phenomenon (AVP)

Asymmetric volatility is a real phenomenon: market uptrends will generally be more continuous and downtrends will more often than not be more keen and more extreme and become flowing declines. Furthermore, the daily reach in prices will in general be higher during downtrends than uptrends.

Be that as it may, there is no consensus about what causes it. One clarification is that trading leverage prompts margin calls and forced selling. Different clarifications come from the field of behavioral finance, like behavioral feedback circles in which certain behavior affects business as usual behavior and panic selling.

Options markets perceive this reality, and integrate higher implied volatility (IV) levels for downside strikes, making a 10% downsize option relatively more expensive than a 10% upside option.

Special Considerations

Individuals are subject to loss aversion, as per behavioral economics and prospect theory, developed by Kahneman and Tversky in 1979. All in all, they favor staying away from losses to obtaining equivalent gains. A few studies propose that losses are two times as strong, psychologically, as gains. This bias skews our assessments of likelihood.

For instance, prospect theory likewise accounts for other [illogical financial behaviors](/prospecttheory, for example, the disposition effect, which is the inclination for investors to hold onto losing stocks for a really long time and sell winning stocks too soon. Building on crafted by Kahneman and Tversky, evolutionary analysts have developed speculations with respect to why the assessment of risks and chances are indivisible from feeling — and why loss aversion could cause asymmetric volatility.

One of the troublesome factors in recognizing the reasons for asymmetric volatility is isolating out broad (systematic) factors from stock-explicit (idiosyncratic) factors. Loss-aversion theory has developed into the asymmetric value function.

The presence of asymmetric volatility assumes an important part in risk management and hedging strategies as well as options pricing. In light of AVP, there is a volatility smile or skew, by which lower-strike options, on average, have greater implied volatilities (IV) than higher strikes. A few traders attribute the presentation of AVP into options pricing to the Black Monday stock market crash of 1987.

AVP is viewed as a market anomaly since on the off chance that markets were efficient and market participants rational entertainers, volatility ought not be impacted by whether prices moves are to the upside or the downside.


  • Some have attributed AVP to market psychology like loss aversion, or to the need to safeguard downside losses undeniably more than upside profits.
  • The logic is that individuals, in aggregate, care about buying downside insurance more than upside speculation.
  • AVP is viewed as a market anomaly since rational entertainers in efficient markets ought to treat all over swings indistinguishably.
  • Since volatility is asymmetric along these lines, options prices incorporate a skew or "smile," with downside strikes normally having greater implied volatilities than higher ones.
  • The asymmetric volatility phenomenon (AVP) is the recognition that volatility increases more when prices fall than when prices rise by a comparable amount.


What Are the Types of Volatility?

Volatility can be assessed in more than one way. Realized or historical volatility is the means by which large and fast price swings have been in the past. Future volatility is what they are generally anticipated to be from now on. Implied volatility (IV) is the expectations of volatility announced options prices in the market.

Is Low Volatility or High Volatility Better for Trading?

This relies upon what type of trader you are. Day traders and swing traders benefit from increased volatility, while trend followers and buy-and-hold investors ordinarily favor consistent gains over the long run. Utilizing different strategies including derivatives contracts, a trader can bring in money from either a high or low volatility environment.

What Is Asymmetric Investing?

Asymmetric investing tries to capitalize on potential adjustments that surpass possible losses. Models can incorporate buying an options contract, where the downside is limited to the premium paid for the contract.

What Options Are Best to Buy in a Volatile Market?

Options prices will more often than not rise with market volatility, whether they be calls or puts. Additionally, longer-dated options contracts are more price-sensitive to changes in volatility. Thusly, assuming that you accept that markets will increase in volatility, you can buy longer maturity options strategies, for example, a straddle or strangle.