Investor's wiki

Bond Option

Bond Option

What Is a Bond Option?

A bond option is an option contract in which the underlying asset is a bond. Like all standard option contracts, an investor can take numerous speculative positions through either bond call or bond put options. As a general rule, a wide range of options, including bond options, are derivative products that permit investors to take speculative wagers on the heading of underlying asset prices or to hedge certain asset risks inside a portfolio.

Grasping Bond Options

To comprehend bond options, it is useful to initially see a few options fundamentals. Options come in two forms, either call options or put options. A call option gives a holder the right to buy an underlying asset at a specific price. A put option gives the holder the right to sell an underlying asset at a specific price. Most options will be American which permits the option holder to exercise whenever up to the expiration date. European options in all actuality do exist which expect that an investor exercise just on the expiration date.

Market participants use bond options to get different outcomes for their portfolios. Hedgers can utilize bond options to safeguard an existing bond portfolio against adverse interest rate developments. Speculators trade bond options in the hope of creating gain on positive, short-term developments in prices. Arbitrageurs use bond options to profit from option price inconsistencies, or like theorists try to distinguish great bond market mispricings.

Option Risks

Options can make a number of risks relying upon an investor's positioning so it very well may be important to comprehend the value at risk with every option contract through payoff outlines. Likewise with all options, the contract holder isn't committed to exercise. Be that as it may, non-exercise will bring about a loss of the contract's purchase value and fees. Accordingly, the combination of the purchase value and fees make the breakeven level on an option. For all options, investors who buy either a call or put option will have a maximum loss equivalent to the purchase value of the option.

Selling a call or put option makes unlimited loss potential. The seller of an option is committed to satisfy his position when the contract holder exercises. Accordingly, the buyer and seller hope for two altogether various results. At the point when an asset rises with a call option on it, the call holder's gain is equivalent to the call seller's loss. At the point when an asset falls with a put option on it, the put holder's gain is equivalent to the put seller's loss. Call options have unlimited potential for gain by the buyer when an asset price rises and unlimited potential for loss by the seller who must deliver the security. With a put option, the buyer could gain the full value of the underlying asset in the event that its value tumbles to zero, making the full value at risk to the seller (excluding fees).

Selling a bond call or bond put option can have unlimited risks of loss.

Marketable Bond Options

Not at all like stocks, bond options are less handily found on secondary markets. Most bond options that truly do exist will trade over the counter. Secondary market bond options are accessible on U.S. Treasury bonds. Past that, investors must shift focus over to options on bond exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

Many bond options are embedded. This means they accompany a bond and can be exercised at the request of either the issuer or investor relying upon the embedded bond option provision.

Bond Call Option

A bond call option is a contract that gives the holder the right to buy a bond by a particular date at a predetermined cost. A secondary market buyer of a bond call option is expecting a decline in interest rates and an increase in bond prices. Assuming interest rates decline, the investor might exercise his rights to buy the bonds. (Recollect there is an inverse relationship between bond prices and interest rates — prices increase when interest rates decline and vice versa.)

Case in point, consider an investor who buys a bond call option with a strike price of $950. The par value of the underlying bond security is $1,000. On the off chance that over the term of the contract, interest rates decline, pushing the value of the bond up to $1,050, the option holder will exercise his right to purchase the bond for $950. Then again, assuming interest rates had increased all things being equal, pushing down the bond's value below the strike price, the buyer would probably decide to let the bond option terminate.

Bond Put Option

The buyer of a bond put option is expecting an increase in interest rates and a reduction in bond prices. A put option gives the buyer the right to sell a bond at the strike price of the contract. For instance, an investor purchases a bond put option with a strike price of $950. The par value of the underlying bond security is $1,000. If true to form, interest rates increase and the bond's price tumbles to $930, the put buyer will exercise his right to sell his bond at the $950 strike price. Assuming an economic event happens in which rates lessening and prices rise past $950, the bond put option holder will let the contract lapse given that he is better off selling the bond at the higher market price.

Embedded Options in Bonds

Bond call and put options are additionally used to allude to the option-like highlights of certain bonds. A callable bond has an embedded call option that gives the issuer the right to "call" or buy back its existing bonds prior to maturity when interest rates decline. The bondholder has, in effect, sold a call option to the issuer. A puttable bond has a put option that gives bondholders the right to "put" or sell the bond back to the issuer at a predefined price before it develops.

One more bond with a embedded option is the convertible bond. A convertible bond has an option which permits the holder to demand conversion of bonds into the stock of the issuer at a predetermined price at a certain time span from now on.

Bond Option Pricing

There are roughly two top models utilized in pricing bond options. These models incorporate the Black-Derman-Toy Model and the Black Model. The factors utilized in both are fundamentally something similar. The key factors associated with bond option pricing will incorporate the spot price, forward price, volatility, time to expiration, and interest rates.


  • People can buy or sell some bond call or bond put options in the secondary market however bond option derivatives are significantly more limited in scope than stock or different types of options contracts.
  • Bond issuers likewise incorporate bond call or bond put options into bond contract provisions.
  • A bond option is an option contract with a bond as the underlying asset.