Investor's wiki



What Is R-Squared?

R-squared (R2) is a statistical measure that represents the proportion of the variance for a dependent variable that is made sense of by an independent variable or variables in a regression model. Whereas correlation makes sense of the strength of the relationship between an independent and dependent variable, R-squared clarifies for what degree the variance of one variable makes sense of the variance of the subsequent variable. Thus, on the off chance that the R2 of a model is 0.50, approximately half of the observed variation can be made sense of by the model's bits of feedbacks.

Formula for R-Squared

R2=1−Unexplained VariationTotal Variation\begin &\text^2 = 1 - \frac{ \text }{ \text } \ \end
The genuine calculation of R-squared requires several means. This incorporates taking the data points (observations) of dependent and independent variables and finding the line of best fit, frequently from a regression model. From there you would compute predicted values, subtract genuine values and square the results. This yields a rundown of errors squared, which is then summed and equals the unexplained variance.

To ascertain the total variance, you would subtract the average genuine value from every one of the real values, square the results and sum them. From there, partition the first sum of errors (made sense of variance) constantly sum (total variance), subtract the result from one, and you have the R-squared.

Everything R-Squared Can Say to You

In investing, R-squared is generally interpreted as the percentage of a fund or security's movements that can be made sense of by movements in a benchmark index. For instance, a R-squared for a fixed-income security versus a bond index distinguishes the security's proportion of price movement that is predictable in light of a price movement of the index.

The equivalent can be applied to a stock versus the S&P 500 index, or some other relevant index. It might likewise be known as the coefficient of determination.

R-squared values range from 0 to 1 and are normally stated as percentages from 0% to 100%. A R-squared of 100% means that all movements of a security (or another dependent variable) are totally made sense of by movements in the index (or the independent variable(s) you are interested in).

In investing, a high R-squared, somewhere in the range of 85% and 100%, demonstrates the stock or fund's performance moves relatively in accordance with the index. A fund with a low R-squared, at 70% or less, demonstrates the security doesn't generally follow the movements of the index. A higher R-squared value will demonstrate a more helpful beta figure. For instance, on the off chance that a stock or fund has a R-squared value of close to 100%, however has a beta below 1, it is doubtlessly offering higher risk-adjusted returns.

R-Squared versus Adjusted R-Squared

R-Squared just works as expected in a simple linear regression model with one explanatory variable. With a different regression comprised of several independent variables, the R-Squared must be adjusted.

The adjusted R-squared compares the descriptive power of regression models that incorporate diverse numbers of predictors. Every predictor added to a model increases R-squared and never decreases it. Hence, a model with more terms might appear to throw a tantrum just for the way that it has more terms, while the adjusted R-squared makes up for the expansion of variables and possibly increases on the off chance that the new term improves the model above what might be gotten by probability and decreases when a predictor upgrades the model not as much as what is predicted by chance.

In a overfitting condition, an incorrectly high value of R-squared is gotten, even when the model really has a decreased ability to predict. This isn't the case with the adjusted R-squared.

R-Squared versus Beta

Beta and R-squared are two related, yet different, measures of correlation yet the beta is a measure of relative riskiness. A mutual fund with a high R-squared correlates highly with a benchmark. Assuming the beta is likewise high, it might produce higher returns than the benchmark, particularly in bull markets. R-squared measures how closely each change in the price of an asset is correlated to a benchmark.

Beta measures how large those price changes are relative to a benchmark. Utilized together, R-squared and beta provide investors with a thorough picture of the performance of asset managers. A beta of precisely 1.0 means that the risk (volatility) of the asset is indistinguishable from that of its benchmark. Basically, R-squared is a statistical analysis technique for the practical use and trustworthiness of betas of securities.

Limitations of R-Squared

R-squared will provide you with an estimate of the relationship between movements of a dependent variable in view of an independent variable's movements. It doesn't let you know whether your picked model is positive or negative, nor will it let you know whether the data and predictions are biased. A high or low R-square isn't necessarily positive or negative, as it doesn't convey the reliability of the model, nor whether you've picked the right regression. You can get a low R-squared for a decent model, or a high R-square for a poorly fitted model, and vice versa.


  • R-Squared is a statistical measure of fit that demonstrates how much variation of a dependent variable is made sense of by the independent variable(s) in a regression model.
  • In investing, R-squared is generally interpreted as the percentage of a fund or security's movements that can be made sense of by movements in a benchmark index.
  • A R-squared of 100% means that all movements of a security (or other dependent variables) are totally made sense of by movements in the index (or the independent variable(s) you are interested in).


What Is a Good R-Squared Value?

What qualifies as a "great" R-Squared value will rely upon the specific circumstance. In certain fields, for example, the social sciences, even a relatively low R-Squared, for example, 0.5 could be considered relatively. In other fields, the standards for a decent R-Squared reading can be a lot higher, like 0.9 or above. In finance, a R-Squared above 0.7 would generally be viewed as showing a high level of correlation, whereas a measure below 0.4 would show a low correlation. This is certainly not a hard rule, however, and will rely upon the specific analysis.

What Does a R-Squared Value of 0.9 Mean?

Basically, a R-Squared value of 0.9 would show that 90% of the variance of the dependent variable being considered is made sense of by the variance of the independent variable. For example, on the off chance that a mutual fund has a R-Squared value of 0.9 relative to its benchmark, that would show that 90% of the variance of the fund is made sense of by the variance of its benchmark index.

Is a Higher R-Squared Better?

Here once more, it relies upon the specific situation. Assume you are searching for a index fund that will track a specific index as closely as could really be expected. In that scenario, you would need the fund's R-Squared to be however high as conceivable since its goal may be to coordinate — rather than surpass — the index. On the off chance that then again, you are searching for actively managed funds, a high R-Squared may be viewed as a terrible sign, demonstrating that the funds' managers are not adding adequate value relative to their benchmarks.